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Redating the reign of Ramesses II to three centuries later than that given by the conventional chronology would not only reposition the date of the Battle of Kadesh and revise the linked chronology of Hittite history, it would also require a revision of the chronology of Assyrian history prior to 911 BC.
Since the 1930s, the majority view has dated the Israelite Exodus and Conquest to the 13th century BC, at the end of the Late Bronze Age.
PREFACE INTRODUCTION 0.1 The question of Historicity 0.2 The Importance of the Question of Date 0.3 A Brief History of the Popular Theories 0.4 A Critique of Some Two Phase Theories 0.5 Handling the Traditions 0.6 The Approach to be Taken PART ONE A CRITICAL EXAMINATION OF THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY DATING OF THE EXODUS CHAPTER ONE: THE TWO MAIN PILLARS OF THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY DATE 1.1 Pithom and Raamses: the Argument from Exodus 1.1.l Raamses 1.1.2 Pithom 1.2 Archaeological Evidence for a Conquest Towards the End of the Thirteenth Century BC 1.2.l The Anomaly of Jericho and Other Cities 1.2.2 Alternative Explanations for the 13th Century Destructions 1.2.3 The Subjective Identification of "Israelite" Culture 1.2.4 Conclusion CHAPTER TWO: OTHER ARGUMENTS USED TO SUPPORT THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY DATE 2.1 The Archaeology of Transjordan 2.2 The Military Campaigns of Seti I and Rameses II CHAPTER THREE: THE IMPLICATION OF THE OLD TESTAMENT'S CHRONOLOGICAL MATERIAL 3.1 The Statement Contained in I Kings 6:1 3.2 Material in the Book of Judges 3.2.1 The Result of Totalling the Periods 3.2.2 The Material in the Book of Judges and the 480 Years of I Kings 6:1 3.2.3 The Extent to which the Judges Period may be Compressed 3.2.4 The Chronology from Jephthah to David's Accession 3.2.5 The Chronology of the Earlier Part of the Judges Period 3.2.6 Conclusion PART TWO PALESTINIAN ARCHAEOLOGY AND THE EARLY DATE FOR THE EXODUS CHAPTER FOUR: JERICHO 106 4.1 Introduction 4.2 The Problem of Jericho 4.2.1 Kenyon's Revisions of the Views of Garstang 4.2.2 Kenyon's Conclusions and the Exodus 4.2.3 A Search for an Explanation 4.3 The Proposed Solution 4.3.l An Alternative View: Joshua and the End of MBA Jericho 4.3.2 Jericho and the Expulsion of the Hyksos 4.3.3 The Argument from Pottery 4.3.4 A New Working Hypothesis CHAPTER FIVE: AN EXCURSUS: BICHROME WARE AND CERAMIC CHRONOLOGY 137 5.l Introduction 5.2 The Dating of MB II B-C 5.3 Bichrome Ware and the MBA Destructions 5.4 Megiddo 5.5 The "Hurrian Migration" and the Appearance of Bichrome Ware 5.6 The Problem of Circular Arguments 5.7 Previous Redatings of the Appearance of Bichrome Ware 5.8 The Length of LB I and the Use of Bichrome Ware 5.9 The Surrounding Regions: Egypt 5.10 Cyprus 5.11 Syria 5.12 Tell el-CAjjul 5.13 Conclusion: the Problem of Methodology CHAPTER·SIX: HAZOR 6 .1 Introduction 6.2 Excavations at Hazor: Garstang and Yadin 6.3 A Short Survey of MBA and LBA Hazor 6.4 Wood and Waltke on Hazor 6.5 A 15th Century Date for the End of MBA Hazor 6.6 The Problem of Judges 4-5 CHAPTER SEVEN: OTHER CONQUEST TRADITIONS AND THE END OF THE MIDDLE BRONZE AGE 7 .1 More Problem-Cities for a Thirteenth Century Conquest 7 .1.1 Hebron 7.1.2 Hormah 7.1.3 Arad 7 .1.4 Gibeon 7.1.5 Dan 7 .2 Other Cities Destroyed at the End of the Middle Bronze Age 7 .3 The Problem-City of Ai 7 .4 The Problem of Shechem CHAPTER EIGHT: SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION APPENDICES 1. The Exodus in Egyptian History NOTES BIBLIOGRAPHY INDICES 1.
I have no religious axe to grind – I am simply an historian in search of some historical truth." Thus, Rohl is of the opinion that none of these three foundations of the conventional Egyptian chronology are secure, and that the sacking of Thebes by the Assyrian king Ashurbanipal in 664 BC is the earliest fixed date in Egyptian history.
Rohl's most vocal critic has been Kenneth Kitchen, one of the leading experts on biblical history and the author of the standard work on the conventional chronology of the Third Intermediate Period of Egypt, the period most directly affected by the New Chronology's redating of the Nineteenth to Twenty-fifth Dynasties.
Rohl asserts that the New Chronology allows him to identify some of the characters in the Hebrew Bible with people whose names appear in archaeological finds.
Between the 1930s and 1950s evidence accumulated in favour of dating the Exodus and Conquest to the 13th century BC. Even some of those scholars who reject the historicity of the Exodus and Conquest traditions still look to the decades around 1200 BC as the time when Israel emerged as a recognizable entity in Canaan.